Prayer#16: Tashahhud Awal (at second raka’at) & Prayer #17: Tashahhud Akhir (at Last Rakaat)
The Prophet, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, sat for tashahhud after two cycles. When the prayer is performed for only 2 cycles, like the Fajr prayer, then he sat iftirasy (seated on the left foot and his right foot spread enforced) like when sitting between the two prostrations. Similarly, during a prayer with 3 or 4 cycles (i.e Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Isha) then in the second rakaat he sat tashahhud awal by sitting iftirasy.
The Sitting Position
Narrated Abu Humaid As Sa’idi: On sitting in the second rakaat, Allah’s Messenger, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wassalam, sat on his left foot and propped up the right one; and when he sat up after the last rakaat he pushed forward the left foot, kept the other foot propped up, and sat over his buttocks. (Bukhari: 828)
Your Hand During Sitting
Ibnu Umar, Radhiyallahu Anhu, reported that when Allah’s Messenger, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, sat down for tashahhud he placed his left hand on his left knee and his right hand upon his right knee, and folded his fingers. He raised his right finger just next to the thumb making supplication in this way while keeping his left hand spread over his left knee. (Muslim: 580)
Moving the Index Finger
Wail bin Hujr, Radhiyallahu Anhu, reported that when Allah’s Messenger, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, sat he folded his left foot and kept his left hand upon his left thigh. He joined two fingers forming a ring. He then raised his forefinger and I saw his stirring it and making supplications at the same time, (Abu Dawud: 726)
The Prophet, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wassalam, wiggled his index finger as he read the prayer. (Abu Dawud, Nasa’i)
(Movement of the index finger) is harder (perceived) by the devil than (punches) of iron. (Ahmad)
The Prophet, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, did this in his two tashahhud (tashahhud awal and tashahhud akhir) (Nasa’i and Baihaqi).
Supplication in Tashahhud
There are many readings of tashahhud that the Prophet, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, taught to his sahabah. We may choose one when reading tashahhud.
1. Abdullah bin Masud, Radhiyallahu Anhu, reported: Allah’s Messenger, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, said: If anyone of you sits for tashahhud (in prayer) he should say:
التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ
Attahiyyaatu lillaahi wassolawaatu wattoyyibaatu, assalaamu ‘alaika ayyuhannabiyyu wa rohmatullaahi wa barokaatuh, assalaamu ‘alainaa wa ‘alaa ‘ibaadillaahissoolihiin, ashhadu anlaa ilaaha illallaahu, wa ashhadu anna muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rosuuluh.
All the adoration of the tongue, acts of worship and of all good things are due to Allah; Peace be upon you O Prophet and Allah’s Mercy and Blessings be on you, Peace be upon us, and upon the true pious slaves of Allah.
If you say that it reaches every righteous slave in the heaven and the earth. Then again say:
أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ
I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger.
Then he should choose any supplication which pleases him and pray for that. (Bukhari: 835, Muslim: 402)
Abdullah bin Masood further said that as long as Allah’s Messenger, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, remained (alive) among the Companions, they kept on reciting “assalaamu ‘alaika ayuuhannabiyyu” “Peace be on you O Prophet” but when he, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wassalam, died, the Companions quit the saying of ‘you’ and recited “assalaamu ‘alannabii” “Peace be on the Prophet.” (Bukhari: 6265)
2. The Prophet, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, has taught us tashahhud as he taught us a Sura of the Qur’an, which reads,
التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ، الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلَّهِ، السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا
وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللهِ
Attahiyyaatul mubaarokaatus solawaatut toyyibaatu lillaah, assalaamu’alaika ayyuhannabiyyu wa rohmatullaahi wa barokaatuh, assalaamu ‘alainaa wa ‘alaa ‘ibaadillaahissoolihiin, ashadu anlaa ilaha illallaah, wa ashhadu anna muhammadan rosuulullaah.
Greeting, all respect, all the gifts, all exaltation and praise belongs to Allah. All the protection and maintenance for you, O Prophet, and the grace of God and all of His gifts. All the protection and maintenance of hope given to us and to the servants of God are righteous. I testify there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.
In another narration it is added: … ‘abduhu wa rosuuluh. ‘…. His servant and His apostles. (Muslim, Abu ‘Awaanah, Shafi’i, and Nasa’i).
The Prophet, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, read shalawat (blessings) for himself at tashahhud awal and for others. (Abu ‘Awanah and Nasa’i).
1. Ka’b bin Ujra, Radhiyallahu Anhu, said: We asked Allah’s Messenger, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, as saying: O Allah’s Messenger, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, kindly tell us how should we invoke blessing upon you and upon your family, and he said: Say
اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ، اللَّهُمَّ
بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ
Allaahumma solli ‘alaa muhammad wa ‘alaa aalii muhammad, kamaa sollaita ‘alaa ibroohiim, wa ‘alaa aali ibroohiim, innaka hamiidum majiid, allaahumma baarik ‘alaa muhammad wa ‘alaa aali muhammad, kamaa baarokta ‘alaa ibroohiim, wa ‘ala aali ibroohiim innaka hamiidum majiid
O Allah! Send your Salat (Blessing, Graces, Honor and Mercy) on Muhammad and Muhammad’s family as you sent your Salat on Ibrahim and Ibrahim’s family, you are Praiseworthy Most Glorious. O Allah! send your Blessings on Muhammad and Muhammad’s family as you sent blessing on Ibrahim and Ibrahim’s family, You are Praiseworthy, Most Gracious. (Bukhari: 3370, Muslim: 406)
2. Narrated Abu Hamaid Assaidi, Radhiyallahu Anhu, The Companions of Allah’s Messenger, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, said: “O Allah’s Messenger! How should we invoke blessing upon you? He, Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam, replied: Say:
Allaahumma solli ‘alaa muhammad wa ‘alaa arwaajihii wa dhurriyyatihii kamaa sollaita ‘alaa aali ibroohiim wa baarik ‘alaa muhamad wa ‘alaa arwaajihii wa dhurriyyatihii kamaa baarokta ‘alaa aali ibroohiima innaka hamiidum majiid
O Allah! send Your Mercy upon Muhammad and his wives and his progeny as You sent Your favors upon the family of Ibrahim. Bless Muhammad, his wives and his progeny as You blessed the family of Ibrahim, and You are indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious. (Bukhari: 3369, Muslim: 407)
It is mentioned in many hadith to read shalawat in the tashahhud, but none showed that reading shalawat is only for a particular tashahhud. Therefore reading shalawat applies to all tashahhud (awal and akhir).
The Prophet got up to the third cycles while saying Takbeer (Bukhari and Muslim).
The Prophet got up from his seat when saying Takbeer, then stood up. (Abu Ya’la)
Sometimes the Prophet raised his hands while reciting Takbeer. (Bukhari and Abu Dawud)